HARRIET TUBMAN

LA MOISES DE LOS ESCLAVOS

Durante más de treinta años, el gobierno estadounidense le negó su derecho a recibir una pensión, sin tener en cuenta su rol histórico durante la Guerra Civil ni su legado inigualable. Como líder abolicionista, Harriet Tubman liberó a muchas personas de la esclavitud. Hoy, el debate sobre la importancia de su figura en la historia de Estados Unidos resurge tras haber sido elegida como la nueva imagen del billete de 20 dólares. Un gesto que sus defensores leen como insuficiente y sus detractores como innecesario.

Biografías

HARRIET TUBMAN

LA MOISES DE LOS ESCLAVOS

Durante más de treinta años, el gobierno estadounidense le negó su derecho a recibir una pensión, sin tener en cuenta su rol histórico durante la Guerra Civil ni su legado inigualable. Como líder abolicionista, Harriet Tubman liberó a muchas personas de la esclavitud. Hoy, el debate sobre la importancia de su figura en la historia de Estados Unidos resurge tras haber sido elegida como la nueva imagen del billete de 20 dólares. Un gesto que sus defensores leen como insuficiente y sus detractores como innecesario.

A raminta “Minty” Ross nació esclava, por eso nunca supo la fecha exacta de su nacimiento. No hay registros. Algunas fuentes sugieren el año 1822. Sí se sabe con certeza que murió de neumonía el 10 de marzo de 1913. Se sabe porque para ese entonces Minty era una mujer libre, y lo era porque el 17 de septiembre de 1849 se había escapado de la plantación Poplar Neck, guiándose por la Estrella del Norte y con la ayuda de la Underground Railroad, una red de abolicionistas que brindaba protección a los esclavos fugitivos. También se sabe que Araminta había nacido en el condado de Dorchester, en el estado de Maryland, y que, por aquel entonces, para ser libres, los esclavos tenían que cruzar la línea Mason-Dixon que separaba a Pensilvania de Maryland y Delaware, que además de establecer el límite entre los estados del Norte y los del Sur, simbolizaba la frontera entre la esclavitud y la libertad, luego de que Pensilvania la aboliera en 1780. No se sabe, por razones obvias, cuál fue la ruta que tomó Minty hacia su emancipación, pero sí hay testimonio de sus propias palabras describiendo lo que sintió al cruzarla: “Me miré las manos para saber si seguía siendo la misma persona. Los rayos del sol se filtraban como oro por entre los árboles y sobre el campo, cubriéndolo todo de gloria. Sentí que estaba en el paraíso”.

Fue planeando su ansiada nueva vida en libertad que Araminta Ross se convirtió en Harriet Tubman. Harriet, en honor a su madre, Harriet “Rit” Green, y Tubman, utilizando el apellido de su esposo John Tubman. La pérdida de la identidad, en el contexto de la historia de Araminta, fue un punto de quiebre más en la ya horrorosa vida de una mujer que había sido forzada a trabajar a los cinco años, abandonando el seno familiar para cuidar los bebes de sus amos. Su trabajo consistía en ocuparse de las tareas de la casa y de asegurarse de que los bebés no lloraran, porque cuando lo hacían la castigaban a latigazos en el cuello, dejándole heridas que jamás cicatrizaron. Cambiar su identidad fue uno de los tantos tormentos que sufrió Araminta, cuyo segundo trabajo, con tan solo siete años, fue el de juntar las ratas que quedaban atrapadas en las trampas. Esa tarea que la obligaba a permanecer mojada a diario de la cintura para abajo y que debilitaba sus defensas, provocó que contrajese sarampión. En este contexto, la pérdida de la identidad aparece como un trámite casi burocrático considerando que Araminta podría haber muerto varias veces a lo largo de su vida, como cuando a los 12 años, tratando de ayudar a escapar a un esclavo fugitivo, su cabeza interceptó una masa que el amo había revoleado para detenerlo y que terminó abriéndole la cabeza, causándole alucinaciones y dolores que la acompañarían durante toda la vida. Ni siquiera la libertad traería calma a su existencia, ya que, a pesar de haber salvado a muchos esclavos, en sus travesías de vida o muerte a través de la Underground Railroad y conduciendo en 1863 al Segundo Batallón de Carolina del Sur, cuando le llegó el tiempo de cobrar su pensión, el gobierno se la negó por treinta años. Y no fue sino hasta la muerte de Nelson Davis, su segundo marido, que pudo contar con un ingreso estable percibiendo el retiro del difunto.

LIDERANDO LA LIBERACION

El 17 de septiembre de 1849, Minty reunió a sus dos hermanos varones y los convenció de que era el momento de escapar. Ella se había enterado de que sus amos estaban a punto de venderlos y separarlos. Salieron juntos de la plantación Poplar Neck, pero Harry y Ben se arrepintieron y regresaron. Araminta se aseguró de que quedaran a salvo y siguió su camino tal y como lo había planeado. Viajaba de noche para no ser interceptada por los cazadores de recompensas. La primera persona que le ofreció ayuda en su travesía fue una mujer cuáquera que resultó ser miembro de la red Underground Railroad, gracias a la cual Harriet pudo llegar a Filadelfia. “Había cruzado la línea. Era libre, pero no había nadie del otro lado para recibirme. Era una extraña en una tierra extraña y mi hogar estaba en Maryland, porque mi padre, mi madre, mis hermanos y hermanas como mis amigos, estaban allí. Yo era libre y ellos debían serlo.” La cita aparece en la biografía oficial publicada en el sitio harriettubman.org y explica los diecinueve viajes que Harriet realizaría de regreso a su hogar, arriesgando su vida, para brindarle la posibilidad de un nuevo comienzo a sus seres queridos. Por eso el abolicionista William Lloyd Garrison la apodó “Moisés”, en clara alusión a la idea de liderar a los suyos hacia la tierra prometida: la libertad. El primer viaje de regreso de Harriet fue para rescatar a su sobrina Kessiah y a sus hijos James y Araminta. La restitución fue exitosa y Harriet se hizo cargo de abonar los estudios de su sobrino James. Años más tarde, James se convertía en maestro de escuela. Las cosas se complicaron (aun más) para Tubman tras la entrada en vigencia del Acta de Esclavos Fugitivos de 1850. El riesgo era cada vez mayor, ya que a partir de ese momento los esclavos debían llegar hasta Canadá para ser libres. Las estrategias de escape eran claves. Los miembros de la red utilizaban un lenguaje en código para comunicarse, como, por ejemplo, canciones. Como la mayoría de los esclavos no sabía leer ni escribir, se les asignaban significados a las diferentes canciones religiosas que habitualmente entonaban. Otra táctica era la de escapar los sábados, ya que los domingos era día de descanso, y entonces nadie notaba la ausencia hasta el lunes a la mañana, dándole así al fugitivo un tiempo de ventaja significativo. Viajar armados era necesario. Tanto como el apoyo económico que aportaban los amigos y admiradores de Harriet y de su causa, como la abolicionista y defensora de los derechos de las mujeres Lucretia Mott y los reformistas Frederick Douglass y Martha Coffin Wright, quienes además constituirían la propia red de Tubman, la Northern Underground Railway. El desafío mayor para Harriet fue el de liberar a sus padres. Ben Ross, su progenitor, siempre había sido un hombre libre, pero como los hijos al nacer heredaban la situación de la madre –Harriet Ross no era libre–, en consecuencia, tampoco lo eran Araminta y sus hermanos. Y si bien se suponía que, al cumplir los 45 años, los esclavos debían ser puestos en libertad, la realidad era que los amos hacían lo que mejor les convenía. Ben terminó comprando a su mujer Rit por 20 dólares, la misma cantidad del billete que hoy ilustra su hija. Ben y su esposa eran ya mayores, así que escaparon en carreta rumbo a Canadá y, una vez allí, se cambiaron el apellido por Stewart. Era el año 1857. Más tarde, los Stewart y su hija se asentarían en Auburn, Nueva York, en un terreno de siete acres que Harriet le había comprado a un amigo. El último viaje que organizó Tubman fue a su pueblo natal, Dorchester, para liberar a una de sus hermanas, Rachel, y a sus dos hijos, en diciembre de 1860. Sin embargo, la desgracia le ganó de mano y cuando Harriet llegó a Dorchester su hermana había fallecido y sus hijos ya no estaban. Harriet apaciguó el dolor de la pérdida fatal rescatando a otra familia y cumpliendo, de una u otra manera, con su cometido inicial.

NEGOCIOS DE FAMILIA

En 1844, Araminta contrajo matrimonio con un hombre libre, John Tubman, también oriundo de Dorchester. Como él no era esclavo y ella sí, el matrimonio resultó ser una unión informal de la que poco se sabe, salvo que en 1867 John falleció víctima de una confrontación con un hombre blanco llamado Robert Vincent que jamás fue acusado por el delito. Dos años más tarde, la viuda de Tubman conoció a Nel son Davis, un fabricante de ladrillos que había sido esclavo en Carolina del Norte y había combatido en la Guerra Civil. Harriet y Nelson se casaron el 18 de marzo del mismo año en que se conocieron. Al poco tiempo adoptaron a Gertie. En 1888, Nelson moría de tuberculosis, dejándole como herencia a Harriet el primer salario estable de su vida: su pensión por fallecimiento de ocho dólares mensuales. Como su propio retiro le era negado, las únicas fuentes de ingreso de Harriet llegaron, literalmente, de la mano de su amiga, la escritora Sarah Bradford, autora de su primera biografía. Gracias a la venta de ese libro, Tubman pudo ponerse al día con sus deudas y sostener económicamente a sus ancianos padres. Scenes in the life of Harriet Tubman fue publicado en 1869 y recaudó 1200 dólares. El éxito de esas primeras memorias generó una segunda llamada Harriet, The Moses of Her People, lanzada en 1886.

HEROÍNA NACIONAL

El enfrentamiento de los estados del Norte con los del Sur se profundizó con la firma del Compromiso de 1850 –un paquete de leyes redactadas, paradójicamente, con el fin de distender la tensión– y el Acta Kansas-Nebraska de 1854, que brindaba a ambos estados la libertad de asumir una posición propia respecto de la esclavitud dentro de los límites de sus territorios. En 1860, tras la elección de Abraham Lincoln como presidente, los estados sureños se unieron con Carolina del Sur y formaron la Confederación. Pronto estallaría el horror de la guerra, y con ella la oportunidad para los afroamericanos de demostrar lealtad y compromiso con su país, en pos de la obtención de su ciudadanía. El escritor Frederick Douglas, el obispo y escritor Jermain Loguen y el escritor e historiador William Wells Brown, líderes reformistas afroamericanos, apoyaron la idea del alistamiento en la Union Army. En 1861, Tubman fue reclutada como voluntaria en la tropa del general Benjamin Buttler, abogado, político, soldado y hombre de negocios. En la legión con asentamiento en Fort Monroe, Virginia, Harriet era la única afroamericana. Su rol no era oficial y consistía en asistir a los fugitivos que se sumaban a la lucha junto con sus familias y que aportaban su mano de obra en la construcción de caminos y canales a cambio de comida. A las mujeres se les asignaban tareas domésticas. Tubman fue enfermera, cocinera y lavandera. En 1862, fue trasladada a Carolina del Sur para unirse al equipo del Dr. Henry K. Durand, director del hospital de esclavos liberados de Port Royal. Allí, Harriet aportó su conocimiento de medicina tradicional para salvar la vida de soldados en peligro de muerte, víctimas de la fiebre tifoidea, cólera, malaria, fiebre amarilla, varicela y disentería. Su poder sanador la convirtió en leyenda. La Proclamación de Emancipación de 1863 legitimó el reclutamiento de soldados afroamericanos. Para esa época, Tubman fue asignada a un grupo de exploradores (espías) encargados de crear rutas de escape para los esclavos que aún vivían en cautiverio. Fue liderando el Segundo Batallón de Carolina del Sur en el río Combahee, que el 2 de junio de ese mismo año Harriet liberó a varios esclavos. Esta misión, que al principio había pasado desapercibida, así como su inigualable labor de rescate junto a la Northern Underground Railway, terminarían haciéndola célebre gracias a un artículo que el periodista Franklin B. Sanborn escribió para el Commonwealth, un periódico abolicionista de Boston. Algo que aclarar. Las cifras exageradas sobre el número de personas esclavizadas que Tubman liberó también han provocado discusiones. Citando las propias palabras de Tubman, su biógrafa Kate Larson –en 2003, publicó Bound for the Promised Land– estima que Harriet liberó a unas setenta personas en trece viajes que realizó desde Maryland hacia la libertad y no trescientas o mil, como se ha escrito. Tubman también aconsejó a otras setenta más sobre cómo usar la red de apoyo.

UNA VIDA DE SERVICIO

Cuando la Guerra Civil llegó a su fin, Tubman se instaló definitivamente en su casa de Auburn, Nueva York, junto a sus padres, sus hermanos y sus familias. Las puertas de su hogar en la calle South Street permanecían abiertas de par en par para todo aquel que necesitara ayuda, abrigo y protección camino de su emancipación. Privada de la pensión que se había ganado arriesgando su vida una y otra vez, Harriet puso manos a la obra y en su jardín armó una huerta que alimentaba tanto a su familia como a los fugitivos, en la que además criaba chanchos. Siempre contó con la ayuda de sus admiradores y de sus amigos. En 1896, con un préstamo del banco local y una donación de la iglesia Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion pudo comprar en una subasta un terreno de 25 acres que, en 1903, donaría a la iglesia, con la condición de que lo convirtieran en un hogar de ancianos. En 1908 su sueño se volvió realidad. Allí, pasaría el resto de sus días.

LA CARA EN EL BILLETE

Durante el mes de abril de 2016, el secretario del Tesoro Jacob Lew anunció que la imagen de Harriet Tubman reemplazaría al frente del billete de 20 dólares a la del ex presidente Andrew Jackson, y que la del séptimo mandatario –reconocido esclavista– pasaría a ilustrar el dorso de ese mismo billete.  “Dado el rol vital que las mujeres han ejercido en la construcción de nuestra nación, es simplemente justo que nuestra moneda refleje dicha contribución”, fueron sus textuales palabras. “La noticia”, comentaba el periodista de la revista Time Denver Nicks, “llega en medio del debate sobre la renovación de las caras de la moneda estadounidense con la intención de que reflejen la diversidad cultural de nuestro país”. Más de quinientas mil personas votaron para que Harriet Tubman apareciera en el billete. Sin embargo, aunque respaldada por la demanda popular, la decisión no hizo más que atizar la discusión. Por un lado, el congresista republicano Steve King trató de frenar la medida, sin dar demasiadas explicaciones, mientras que el candidato presidencial por el mismo partido Donald Trump, así como su otrora oponente Ben Carson, sugirieron que Tubman se vería mejor en el billete de 2 dólares. A lo que Trump agregó: “Proponerla es puramente corrección política”. Por otro lado, la columnista afroamericana del periódico The Guardian Ijeoma Oluo argumentaba: “Sí, me regocija saber que los blancos tienen que ver el orgulloso y desafiante rostro de Harriet Tubman cada vez que abren su billetera. Pero la imagen de Tubman en nuestra moneda como una suerte de acción correctiva de cientos de años de opresión y subyugación o como símbolo de lo lejos que hemos llegado aboliendo el racismo, es más que nada símbolo de nuestra fundamental confusión sobre la raza”. Pero no terminó ahí el alegato de Oluo: “La esclavitud en Estados Unidos fue, básicamente, un sistema económico. La esclavitud tuvo que ver con obtener mano de obra gratis con el objetivo de crecer rápidamente y sostener con bajos costos la riqueza de los blancos. El racismo nació, no del odio y de la intolerancia, sino como justificación moral a los medios inmorales de producción sobre los que se apoyaba la prosperidad de nuestra nación”.

LOS SIMBOLOS IMPORTAN

Los símbolos nos ayudan a definir quiénes somos como pueblo y la historia que queremos contar sobre esta nación. Entonces, con respecto al billete de $ 20, la elección es entre el titular actual – Andrew Jackson -, un hombre blanco racista que esclavizó a los seres humanos, y una mujer negra que arriesgó su vida repetidamente para liberarlos. Harriet Tubman, trabajadora incansable por el sufragio femenino, fue elegida en 2016 por el secretario del Tesoro del presidente Obama para reemplazar a Andrew Jackson en el billete de $20 a partir de 2020. Jack Lew, el secretario del Tesoro de Obama, elogió a Tubman como “un modelo a seguir para el liderazgo y la participación en nuestra democracia”.

Pero el 22 de mayo de 2019 el secretario del Tesoro de Trump, Steve Mnuchin, anunció que Tubman será desterrada del billete de 20 dólares. Andrew Jackson, el propietario de esclavos que robó tierras a los nativos americanos, permanecerá en la moneda al menos hasta 2028. La razón aparente, al menos según Mnuchin, es que la primera prioridad del Tesoro es modificar el diseño del billete de $20 para abordar “problemas de falsificación” que no pudo especificar.  Cuando se le preguntó, durante una audiencia en el Congreso, si él personalmente cree que Tubman debería aparecer en el billete, respondió: “No he tomado ninguna decisión al respecto”.

La actitud de Trump sobre Tubman ha sido obvia desde 2016, cuando le dijo al programa “Today Show” de NBC que el plan de ponerla en el $20 lo molestó mucho: “No me gusta verlo. Creo que es pura corrección política”. Y, según los informes, fue más directo en la conversación con los asesores de la Casa Blanca. Según Omarosa Manigault Newman, la ex asistente que escribió el libro “Unhinged”, Trump le dijo lo que realmente pensaba sobre Tubman: “¿Quieres que ponga esa cara en el billete de $20?”. Trump, no solo denosta a Harriet Tubman, sino que admira profundamente a Andrew Jackson. Al principio de su mandato, visitó su tumba y tuiteó: “Honramos su memoria. Construimos sobre su legado”. Era un legado de opresión, como se presenta vívidamente en el libro “Jacksonland”. Basta una muestra: “El estilo de negociación de Jackson (con los nativos americanos) era franco y coercitivo. En charla tras charla a lo largo de los años, les dijo a los líderes nativos que era su amigo y que quería pagar por sus tierras, pero que, si no las vendían, los colonos blancos se las apropiarían gratis”. Jackson, los miembros de su familia y sus socios comerciales más cercanos finalmente robaron más de 45,000 acres. Donald Trump ama tanto a Jackson que en 2017 ofreció esta increíble lección de historia: “Fue durante la Revolución que Jackson enfrentó y desafió por primera vez a una élite arrogante”. Para que quede completamente claro: Cuando estalló la Revolución, Jackson tenía ocho años; y para cuando los británicos se rindieron en Yorktown, tenía 14 años.

Trump dejó la Casa Blanca en enero de 2021. La administración Biden-Harris, si bien habían hecho la promesa de acelerar el proceso de inclusión de Harriet Tubman en el billete de 20 dólares, a la fecha no parece haber avance alguno. Parece increíble que este país pueda poner una nave en Marte, pero no pueda cambiar la imagen en un pedazo de papel. Se equivocan. Los símbolos sí importan.

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In addition to other terms as set forth in the Agreement, you are prohibited from using the Services or Content: (a) for any unlawful purpose; (b) to solicit others to perform or participate in any unlawful acts; (c) to violate any international, federal, provincial or state regulations, rules, laws, or local ordinances; (d) to infringe upon or violate our intellectual property rights or the intellectual property rights of others; (e) to harass, abuse, insult, harm, defame, slander, disparage, intimidate, or discriminate based on gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, race, age, national origin, or disability; (f) to submit false or misleading information; (g) to upload or transmit viruses or any other type of malicious code that will or may be used in any way that will affect the functionality or operation of the Services, third party products and services, or the Internet; (h) to spam, phish, pharm, pretext, spider, crawl, or scrape; (i) for any obscene or immoral purpose; or (j) to interfere with or circumvent the security features of the Services, third party products and services, or the Internet. We reserve the right to terminate your use of the Services for violating any of the prohibited uses.

Intellectual property rights

“Intellectual Property Rights” means all present and future rights conferred by statute, common law or equity in or in relation to any copyright and related rights, trademarks, designs, patents, inventions, goodwill and the right to sue for passing off, rights to inventions, rights to use, and all other intellectual property rights, in each case whether registered or unregistered and including all applications and rights to apply for and be granted, rights to claim priority from, such rights and all similar or equivalent rights or forms of protection and any other results of intellectual activity which subsist or will subsist now or in the future in any part of the world. This Agreement does not transfer to you any intellectual property owned by ALMA MAGAZINE or third parties, and all rights, titles, and interests in and to such property will remain (as between the parties) solely with ALMA MAGAZINE. All trademarks, service marks, graphics and logos used in connection with the Services, are trademarks or registered trademarks of ALMA MAGAZINE or its licensors. Other trademarks, service marks, graphics and logos used in connection with the Services may be the trademarks of other third parties. Your use of the Services grants you no right or license to reproduce or otherwise use any of ALMA MAGAZINE or third-party trademarks.

Disclaimer of warranty

You agree that such Service is provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis and that your use of the Services is solely at your own risk. We expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind, whether express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement. We make no warranty that the Services will meet your requirements, or that the Service will be uninterrupted, timely, secure, or error-free; nor do we make any warranty as to the results that may be obtained from the use of the Service or as to the accuracy or reliability of any information obtained through the Service or that defects in the Service will be corrected. You understand and agree that any material and/or data downloaded or otherwise obtained through the use of Service is done at your own discretion and risk and that you will be solely responsible for any damage or loss of data that results from the download of such material and/or data. We make no warranty regarding any goods or services purchased or obtained through the Service or any transactions entered into through the Service unless stated otherwise. No advice or information, whether oral or written, obtained by you from us or through the Service shall create any warranty not expressly made herein.

Limitation of liability

To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, in no event will ALMA MAGAZINE, its affiliates, directors, officers, employees, agents, suppliers or licensors be liable to any person for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, cover or consequential damages (including, without limitation, damages for lost profits, revenue, sales, goodwill, use of content, impact on business, business interruption, loss of anticipated savings, loss of business opportunity) however caused, under any theory of liability, including, without limitation, contract, tort, warranty, breach of statutory duty, negligence or otherwise, even if the liable party has been advised as to the possibility of such damages or could have foreseen such damages. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, the aggregate liability of ALMA MAGAZINE and its affiliates, officers, employees, agents, suppliers and licensors relating to the services will be limited to an amount no greater than one dollar or any amounts actually paid in cash by you to ALMA MAGAZINE for the prior one-month period prior to the first event or occurrence giving rise to such liability. The limitations and exclusions also apply if this remedy does not fully compensate you for any losses or fails of its essential purpose.

Indemnification

You agree to indemnify and hold ALMA MAGAZINE and its affiliates, directors, officers, employees, agents, suppliers and licensors harmless from and against any liabilities, losses, damages or costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, incurred in connection with or arising from any third-party allegations, claims, actions, disputes, or demands asserted against any of them as a result of or relating to your Content, your use of the Services or any willful misconduct on your part.

Severability

All rights and restrictions contained in this Agreement may be exercised and shall be applicable and binding only to the extent that they do not violate any applicable laws and are intended to be limited to the extent necessary so that they will not render this Agreement illegal, invalid or unenforceable. If any provision or portion of any provision of this Agreement shall be held to be illegal, invalid or unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction, it is the intention of the parties that the remaining provisions or portions thereof shall constitute their agreement with respect to the subject matter hereof, and all such remaining provisions or portions thereof shall remain in full force and effect.

Dispute resolution

The formation, interpretation, and performance of this Agreement and any disputes arising out of it shall be governed by the substantive and procedural laws of Florida, United States without regard to its rules on conflicts or choice of law and, to the extent applicable, the laws of United States. The exclusive jurisdiction and venue for actions related to the subject matter hereof shall be the courts located in Florida, United States, and you hereby submit to the personal jurisdiction of such courts. You hereby waive any right to a jury trial in any proceeding arising out of or related to this Agreement. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods does not apply to this Agreement.

Assignment

You may not assign, resell, sub-license or otherwise transfer or delegate any of your rights or obligations hereunder, in whole or in part, without our prior written consent, which consent shall be at our own sole discretion and without obligation; any such assignment or transfer shall be null and void. We are free to assign any of its rights or obligations hereunder, in whole or in part, to any third party as part of the sale of all or substantially all of its assets or stock or as part of a merger.

Changes and amendments

We reserve the right to modify this Agreement or its terms related to the Services at any time at our discretion. When we do, we will revise the updated date at the bottom of this page, post a notification within the Services, send you an email to notify you. We may also provide notice to you in other ways at our discretion, such as through the contact information you have provided. An updated version of this Agreement will be effective immediately upon the posting of the revised Agreement unless otherwise specified. Your continued use of the Services after the effective date of the revised Agreement (or such other act specified at that time) will constitute your consent to those changes.

Acceptance of these terms

You acknowledge that you have read this Agreement and agree to all its terms and conditions. By accessing and using the Services you agree to be bound by this Agreement. If you do not agree to abide by the terms of this Agreement, you are not authorized to access or use the Services.

Contacting us

If you have any questions, concerns, or complaints regarding this Agreement, we encourage you to contact us using the details below:

info@ALMAMAGAZINE.com

This document was last updated on November 12, 2021

Disclaimer

This disclaimer (“Disclaimer”) sets forth the general guidelines, disclosures, and terms of your use of the BoatsGuideFlorida.com website (“Website”), “ALMA MAGAZINE” mobile application (“Mobile Application”) and any of their related products and services (collectively, “Services”). This Disclaimer is a legally binding agreement between you (“User”, “you” or “your”) and GHIDS MEDIA CORP (doing business as “ALMA MAGAZINE”, “we”, “us” or “our”). If you are entering into this agreement on behalf of a business or other legal entity, you represent that you have the authority to bind such entity to this agreement, in which case the terms “User”, “you” or “your” shall refer to such entity. If you do not have such authority, or if you do not agree with the terms of this agreement, you must not accept this agreement and may not access and use the Services. By accessing and using the Services, you acknowledge that you have read, understood, and agree to be bound by the terms of this Disclaimer. You acknowledge that this Disclaimer is a contract between you and ALMA MAGAZINE, even though it is electronic and is not physically signed by you, and it governs your use of the Services.

Representation

Any views or opinions represented on the Services are personal and belong solely to ALMA MAGAZINE and do not represent those of people, institutions or organizations that ALMA MAGAZINE may or may not be associated with in professional or personal capacity unless explicitly stated. Any views or opinions are not intended to malign any religion, ethnic group, club, organization, company, or individual.

Content and postings

You may not modify, print or copy any part of the Services. Inclusion of any part of the Services in another work, whether in printed or electronic or another form or inclusion of any part of the Services on another resource by embedding, framing or otherwise without the express permission of ALMA MAGAZINE is prohibited.

Compensation and sponsorship

The Services may contain forms of advertising, sponsorship, paid insertions or other forms of compensation. On certain occasions ALMA MAGAZINE may be compensated to provide opinions on products, services, or various other topics. The compensation received may influence such opinions of the advertised content or topics available on the Services. Sponsored content and advertising space will always be identified as such. Some of the links on the Services may be affiliate links. This means if you click on the link and purchase an item, ALMA MAGAZINE will receive an affiliate commission.

Indemnification and warranties

While we have made every attempt to ensure that the information contained on the Services is correct, ALMA MAGAZINE is not responsible for any errors or omissions, or for the results obtained from the use of this information. All information on the Services is provided “as is”, with no guarantee of completeness, accuracy, timeliness or of the results obtained from the use of this information, and without warranty of any kind, express or implied. In no event will ALMA MAGAZINE be liable to you or anyone else for any decision made or action taken in reliance on the information on the Services, or for any consequential, special or similar damages, even if advised of the possibility of such damages. Information on the Services is for general information purposes only and is not intended to provide any type of professional advice. Please seek professional assistance should you require it. Information contained on the Services are subject to change at any time and without warning.

Changes and amendments

We reserve the right to modify this Disclaimer or its terms related to the Services at any time at our discretion. When we do, we will revise the updated date at the bottom of this page, post a notification within the Services, send you an email to notify you. We may also provide notice to you in other ways at our discretion, such as through the contact information you have provided. An updated version of this Disclaimer will be effective immediately upon the posting of the revised Disclaimer unless otherwise specified. Your continued use of the Services after the effective date of the revised Disclaimer (or such other act specified at that time) will constitute your consent to those changes.

Acceptance of this disclaimer

You acknowledge that you have read this Disclaimer and agree to all its terms and conditions. By accessing and using the Services you agree to be bound by this Disclaimer. If you do not agree to abide by the terms of this Disclaimer, you are not authorized to access or use the Services.

Contacting us

If you have any questions, concerns, or complaints regarding this Disclaimer, we encourage you to contact us using the details below:

[email protected]

This document was last updated on March 12, 2022

Privacy Policy
This policy was last updated on March 21, 2022.
Introduction
This Privacy Policy applies to all of the products, services, and websites offered by Ghids Media Corporation and its subsidiaries or affiliated companies (collectively, “Ghids Media”). We provide this notice explaining our privacy practices and the choices you can make about how your information is collected and used by Ghids Media Corporation. Ghids Media has appointed a Data Protection Office to contact if you have any questions or concerns. The Data Protection Office contact information is as follows: Data Protection Office  Ghids Media Corporation  11007 Griffing Blvd. Miami, FL33161  [email protected]
An overview of the information we may collect.
You can take advantage of many Bonnier products, services, and websites without providing any information that personally identifies you by name, address, or other personally-identifying information. We only collect personally-identifying information when you voluntarily submit it to us. Sometimes, we need personally-identifying information to provide you with the products and services you request. Depending upon the product or service, we may ask you for various personally-identifying information. This might include, for example, your name, address, email address, telephone number, gender, and birth date. We may also ask for other information about you, such as your credit card information (when making a purchase), interests, income, or education level. We consider certain identifying information “sensitive.” This includes your credit card number, income level, or other information usually regarded as confidential. Some personal information will never be requested or collected, such as information on your race or ethnic origin, political opinions, trade union memberships, religious beliefs, health, sex life, or sexual orientation. You may choose not to provide us with any personally-identifying information. In that case, you can still access and use many portions of our websites; however, you will not be able to access and use those portions of any Bonnier website that require your personal information. Many Ghids Media websites include community features, such as online forums and message boards. The information posted in these areas becomes public information, and any third party’s use of this information is beyond our control. If you elect to submit content that includes information that can be used to identify you, you must assume that the content can and will be displayed on any website on the Internet. Our properties may feature measurement software, which will allow you to contribute to market research. We allow third-party companies to serve ads and/or collect certain information when you visit our website and directly in emails/communications. These companies may use information you have shared (e.g., click stream information, browser type, time and date, subject of advertisements clicked or scrolled over, email address) during your visits to this and other Web sites to provide advertisements about goods and services likely to be of greater interest to you. Our partners use this information to recognize you across different channels and platforms over time for advertising, analytics, attribution, and reporting purposes; any information collected is stored in hashed or non-human-readable form. These companies typically use a cookie or third party web beacon to collect this information. Ghids Media websites sometimes may offer contests, sweepstakes, or promotions sponsored by or co-sponsored with identified third parties. Under their sponsorship, these third parties may obtain personally-identifying information that visitors voluntarily submit to them to participate in the contest, sweepstakes, or promotion. B Ghids Media has no control over the third-party sponsors’ use of this information. If a third-party sponsor beyond our control will obtain information that you supply us, we will notify you when we collect the information from you. For specific promotions, only those who provide us with the requested personally-identifying information will be able to order products, programs, and services or otherwise participate in the promotion’s activities and offerings. Some of our websites contain links to other sites. By clicking on these links, you will leave the website operated by Ghids Media and this Privacy Policy will no longer apply. These other sites’ information practices may be different than ours. You should consult the other sites’ privacy notices, as we have no control over information submitted to or collected by these third parties.
How we use the information we collect
We use the personally-identifying information you provide us to fulfill your requests for our products, programs, and services, respond to your inquiries about offerings, and offer you other products, programs, or services that we believe may be of interest to you. We sometimes use this information to communicate with you, such as to notify you when you have won one of our contests, make changes to subscriber agreements, fulfill a request by you for an online newsletter, or contact you about your account with us. We do not use your personal information to make automated decisions. We may syndicate the publicly available content of our community areas to unaffiliated third-party websites using RSS or other technologies. The information you have shared in the community areas may be included in this syndication. We will use the personally-identifying information that you provide about others in order to provide the products or services that you have requested; for example, to enable us to send them your gifts or cards. If you provide us someone else’s personally-identifying information for referral purposes, we may use that information to invite them to visit our websites or to provide them information about our products or services. If you provide us with your email and/or postal address, we may include that address in email and/or postal address lists that we sell, trade, or rent to third parties. These lists will never contain sensitive information. If you do not wish for your email or postal address to be shared with companies not owned by Bonnier who want to market products or services to you, you have the opportunity to opt out, as described below. You may also opt out of the receipt of any marketing materials from Ghids Media as described below. We may transfer your sensitive personally-identifying information to other Bonnier offices for internal management and administrative purposes. In addition, your personal data will be transferred to other Bonnier offices where necessary for the performance or conclusion of our contractual obligations to you or for your benefit. Transfers of personally-identifying information may also be made where necessary for the establishment, exercise, or defense of legal claims. We do not transfer personal information internationally. Ghids Media will only share your sensitive personal information with outside companies or individuals in any of the following limited circumstances:
  • When we use trusted businesses or persons to process personal information on our behalf. Before sharing any personal information with outside parties, we require that these parties agree to process such information based on our instructions and in compliance with this Privacy Policy and any other appropriate confidentiality and security measures.
  • When we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation, or disclosure is necessary to:
  1. comply with applicable law, regulation, or legal process;
  2. enforce the applicable Terms of Service or other agreements and policies on the Company’s Websites;
  3. detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, or technical issues; or
  4. protect against imminent harm to the rights, property, or safety or Ghids Media, its users, or the public as required or permitted by law.
  • When you consent. Before we share your sensitive personal information outside of the previously listed circumstances, we will ask you for permission first. Please note that this only applies to sensitive information, as defined above.
We may also use, transfer, sell, and share aggregated, anonymous data about our users for any legal purpose, such as analyzing usage trends and seeking compatible advertisers and partners. In no event will this aggregated data contain any information that could be used to identify individual users of our products or services.
How we protect the safety and integrity of the information we collect
We take appropriate physical, electronic, and procedural measures to safeguard and protect your personal information. We use a variety of security measures, including encryption and authentication, to maintain the confidentiality of your personal information. We store your personal information on systems behind firewalls that are only accessible to a limited number of persons, each of whom is required to keep the information confidential. We also take appropriate measures to secure the transmission of sensitive personal information from your computer to the Company’s computers. When you transmit sensitive personal information to us, like credit card information, we offer the use of a secure connection to our servers. To the extent you select the secure connection method or your browser supports such functionality, all credit card account information that you supply is transmitted via secure encryption technology. Regardless of these measures, no system connected to the Internet or data transmission sent over the Internet can be guaranteed to be 100% secure. We will provide notice if we become aware of any security breach that may affect any sensitive personal information pertaining to you that we have stored on our systems. Ghids Media only collects personal information that is relevant to the purposes for which it will be used. Though we do take appropriate steps to review and update the information that we store to ensure that it is accurate, complete, and current, we also depend on you to update or correct your personal information when necessary. To protect your privacy and security, we will take reasonable steps to help verify your identity before granting access or making corrections. We will decline to process requests where we cannot verify the identity of the requester. We may also decline to process requests that are automated, repetitive, systematic, or impractical, or that might jeopardize the privacy of others. In some limited circumstances, such as to resolve disputes, troubleshoot problems, and enforce our policies, we may retain some of information that you have requested us to remove. Therefore, you should not expect that all of your personal information will be completely removed from our databases in response to your requests.
Your privacy options
We do not share your email address with any third-party, unless you have given us the explicit permission to do so. Email messages we send on behalf of our advertisers or other Bonnier brands are delivered from our internal email marketing system only. We may also use an encrypted form of your email address strictly for matching purposes, both internally and externally. We only want to communicate with you if you want to hear from us. All email messages we send will contain Unsubscribe and Manage Preferences links in the footer of each email, which you can use to control what type of email messages you receive. In order to provide you with all relevant content for our brand(s) with which you have interest and to give you the greatest degree of control over what type of messages you receive, your email address may exist on multiple lists. Taking action using the Unsubscribe link will suppress you from a single list for that type of content (ex: Editorial, Sponsored or Consumer Marketing). For this reason, if you want to stop receiving all email messages from a Bonnier brand, using the Manage Preferences link from the email footer may be a more appropriate option. You may also use the Manage Preferences link to receive other content types, update your personal information or sign up for emails from other Ghids Media brands.
Questions, Concerns, and Complaints
If you have any questions or concerns about this Policy, or if you think that we have used your personal information in a manner inconsistent with this Policy, please contact us by mail or email: Data Protection Office Ghids Media Corporation 11007 Griffing Blvd. Miami, FL33161 [email protected] If we receive a complaint from you, we will contact you in an attempt to address your concerns. If we are not able to resolve a complaint, we will participate in appropriate independent recourse mechanisms as necessary. Boats Guide Florida, Usa Onboard, Alma Magazine, Alma Miami and Ghids are Trademarks of Ghids Media Corp.

GHIDS MEDIA CORP & USA ONBOARD

Website And Web Application
Terms and conditions

USA ONBOARD is a media owned by GHIDS MEDIA CORP.

These terms and conditions (“Agreement”) set forth the general terms and conditions of your use of the BoatsGuideFlorida.com website (“Website”), “BOATS GUIDE FLORIDA” mobile application (“Mobile Application”), UsaOnboard.com website (“Website”), and any of their related products and services (collectively, “Services”). This Agreement is legally binding between you (“User”, “you” or “your”) and GHIDS MEDIA CORP (doing business as “BOATS GUIDE FLORIDA”, USA ONBOARD, “we”, “us” or “our”). If you are entering into this agreement on behalf of a business or other legal entity, you represent that you have the authority to bind such entity to this agreement, in which case the terms “User”, “you” or “your” shall refer to such entity. If you do not have such authority, or if you do not agree with the terms of this agreement, you must not accept this agreement and may not access and use the Services. By accessing and using the Services, you acknowledge that you have read, understood, and agree to be bound by the terms of this Agreement. You acknowledge that this Agreement is a contract between you and BOATS GUIDE FLORIDA & USA ONBOARD even though it is electronic and is not physically signed by you, and it governs your use of the Services.

Accounts and membership

If you create an account on the Services, you are responsible for maintaining the security of your account and you are fully responsible for all activities that occur under the account and any other actions taken in connection with it. We may monitor and review new accounts before you may sign in and start using the Services. Providing false contact information of any kind may result in the termination of your account. You must immediately notify us of any unauthorized uses of your account or any other breaches of security. We will not be liable for any acts or omissions by you, including any damages of any kind incurred as a result of such acts or omissions. We may suspend, disable, or delete your account (or any part thereof) if we determine that you have violated any provision of this Agreement or that your conduct or content would tend to damage our reputation and goodwill. If we delete your account for the foregoing reasons, you may not re-register for our Services. We may block your email address and Internet protocol address to prevent further registration.

User content

We do not own any data, information or material (collectively, “Content”) that you submit on the Services in the course of using the Service. You shall have sole responsibility for the accuracy, quality, integrity, legality, reliability, appropriateness, and intellectual property ownership or right to use of all submitted Content. We may monitor and review the Content on the Services submitted or created using our Services by you. You grant us permission to access, copy, distribute, store, transmit, reformat, display and perform the Content of your user account solely as required for the purpose of providing the Services to you. Without limiting any of those representations or warranties, we have the right, though not the obligation, to, in our own sole discretion, refuse or remove any Content that, in our reasonable opinion, violates any of our policies or is in any way harmful or objectionable. You also grant us the license to use, reproduce, adapt, modify, publish or distribute the Content created by you or stored in your user account for commercial, marketing or any similar purpose.

Billing and payments

You shall pay all fees or charges to your account in accordance with the fees, charges, and billing terms in effect at the time a fee or charge is due and payable. Where Services are offered on a free trial basis, payment may be required after the free trial period ends, and not when you enter your billing details (which may be required prior to the commencement of the free trial period). If auto-renewal is enabled for the Services you have subscribed for, you will be charged automatically in accordance with the term you selected. If, in our judgment, your purchase constitutes a high-risk transaction, we will require you to provide us with a copy of your valid government-issued photo identification, and possibly a copy of a recent bank statement for the credit or debit card used for the purchase. We reserve the right to change products at any time. We also reserve the right to refuse any order you place with us. We may, in our sole discretion, limit or cancel quantities purchased per person, per household or per order. These restrictions may include orders placed by or under the same customer account, the same credit card, and/or orders that use the same billing and/or shipping address. In the event that we make a change to or cancel an order, we may attempt to notify you by contacting the e-mail and/or billing address/phone number provided at the time the order was made.

Accuracy of information

Occasionally there may be information on the Services that contains typographical errors, inaccuracies or omissions that may relate to availability, promotions and offers. We reserve the right to correct any errors, inaccuracies or omissions, and to change or update information or cancel orders if any information on the Services or Services is inaccurate at any time without prior notice (including after you have submitted your order). We undertake no obligation to update, amend or clarify information on the Services including, without limitation, pricing information, except as required by law. No specified update or refresh date applied on the Services should be taken to indicate that all information on the Services or Services has been modified or updated.

Third party services

If you decide to enable, access or use third party services, be advised that your access and use of such other services are governed solely by the terms and conditions of such other services, and we do not endorse, are not responsible or liable for, and make no representations as to any aspect of such other services, including, without limitation, their content or the manner in which they handle data (including your data) or any interaction between you and the provider of such other services. You irrevocably waive any claim against BOATS GUIDE FLORIDA with respect to such other services. BOATS GUIDE FLORIDA is not liable for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with your enablement, access or use of any such other services, or your reliance on the privacy practices, data security processes or other policies of such other services. You may be required to register for or log into such other services on their respective platforms. By enabling any other services, you are expressly permitting BOATS GUIDE FLORIDA to disclose your data as necessary to facilitate the use or enablement of such other service.

Backups

We perform regular backups of the Website and its Content and will do our best to ensure completeness and accuracy of these backups. In the event of the hardware failure or data loss we will restore backups automatically to minimize the impact and downtime.

Advertisements

During your use of the Services, you may enter into correspondence with or participate in promotions of advertisers or sponsors showing their goods or services through the Services. Any such activity, and any terms, conditions, warranties or representations associated with such activity, is solely between you and the applicable third party. We shall have no liability, obligation or responsibility for any such correspondence, purchase or promotion between you and any such third party.

Links to other resources

Although the Services may link to other resources (such as websites, mobile applications, etc.), we are not, directly or indirectly, implying any approval, association, sponsorship, endorsement, or affiliation with any linked resource, unless specifically stated herein. Some of the links on the Services may be “affiliate links”. This means if you click on the link and purchase an item, BOATS GUIDE FLORIDA will receive an affiliate commission. We are not responsible for examining or evaluating, and we do not warrant the offerings of, any businesses or individuals or the content of their resources. We do not assume any responsibility or liability for the actions, products, services, and content of any other third parties. You should carefully review the legal statements and other conditions of use of any resource which you access through a link on the Services. Your linking to any other off-site resources is at your own risk.

Prohibited uses

In addition to other terms as set forth in the Agreement, you are prohibited from using the Services or Content: (a) for any unlawful purpose; (b) to solicit others to perform or participate in any unlawful acts; (c) to violate any international, federal, provincial or state regulations, rules, laws, or local ordinances; (d) to infringe upon or violate our intellectual property rights or the intellectual property rights of others; (e) to harass, abuse, insult, harm, defame, slander, disparage, intimidate, or discriminate based on gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, race, age, national origin, or disability; (f) to submit false or misleading information; (g) to upload or transmit viruses or any other type of malicious code that will or may be used in any way that will affect the functionality or operation of the Services, third party products and services, or the Internet; (h) to spam, phish, pharm, pretext, spider, crawl, or scrape; (i) for any obscene or immoral purpose; or (j) to interfere with or circumvent the security features of the Services, third party products and services, or the Internet. We reserve the right to terminate your use of the Services for violating any of the prohibited uses.

Intellectual property rights

“Intellectual Property Rights” means all present and future rights conferred by statute, common law or equity in or in relation to any copyright and r